|Size||21 - 36 um|
|Exine||1.5 um thick|
|Intine||notably thick, up to 6.5 um|
|Sculpting||microverrucate (small warty processes)|
|Bloom Period||late March, April, and May|
|Allergenicity||in large amounts may cause hay fever|
Dr. M. Davis images:
Bassett, John, Clifford Crompton and John Parmelee. An Atlas of Airborne Pollen Grains and Common Fungus Spores of Canada. Canada Department of Agriculture, 1978.
Jelks, Mary, M.D. Allergy Plants that Cause Sneezing and Wheezing. World Wide Printing, Tampa, 1986.
Kapp, Ronald O. Pollen and Spores, Second Edition. The American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation, 2000.
Lewis, Walter H., Prathibha Vinay and Vincent E. Zenger. Airborne and Allergenic Pollen of North America. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1983.
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